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Вольво, система охлаждения

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Министерство Сельского Хозяйства Российской Федерации

Департамент кадровой политики и образования

Московский государственный агроинженерный университет имени В.П. Горячкина

Кафедра иностранных языков

Курсовая работа.

Выполнил: Потапов В.В.

Проверил: Кулешов А.В.

Москва, 2004г.


The history of Volvo (английский оригинал)

Cooling system (английский оригинал)

The seven step path to better decisions (английский оригинал)

История Вольво (перевод)

Система охлаждения (перевод)

Семь способов принятия верных решений (перевод)

The history of Volvo.

The Volvo 1800 was superseded by the 1800 ES sports coupe in 1971, while the 140 series was replaced by the modern 240/260 three years later. In the USA, the Volvo 240 was designated as the standard for car safety. In 1972, Volvo acquired the car division of Dutch carmakers DAF and the Volvo 343 was introduced four years later.

1970 - Volvo's first SponsorshipThe Volvo Accident Research Team for cars was established. In addition to monitoring crash testing of complete cars and components in the laboratory, Volvo researchers were now able to gather valuable information on real-life accidents. Field investigations were complemented by statistics. Since the team's foundation, all accident information is supplied to Volvo's design engineers for use in new car development. Volvo car No. 2,000,000 was produced. Volvo undertook its first major sports sponsorship - the Volvo Open in golf. Fourteen years and 667,323 cars later, the Amazon was discontinued.

1971 - New Arrivals: P.G. Gyllenhammar and the 1800 ESThe 1800 ES was the big event of the year in cars. Although the front half was identical to its predecessor, the P1800, the rear half was new and resembled an estate to some extent. With a maximum output of 135 hp, the 1800 ES more than fulfilled buyers' expectations of sportiness. Although the model did become popular, it was discontinued only two years later. It is now a cult model which attracts prices many times higher than the original. In 1971, the Volvo Group acquired its third president and CEO when Pehr Gustaf Gyllenhammar, then just 36 years old, succeeded his father-in-law, Gunnar Engellau. His first act was to offer seats on the board to company employees. The same year, the Volvo Group joined Renault and Peugeot in a far-reaching engine development venture, forming a joint company known as PRV for the purpose. The aim was to produce six-cylinder engines at a plant in Douvrin in the north of France. Production at the facility, which was owned jointly by Renault and Peugeot, continued until 1990. Volvo commenced car production in Melbourne, Australia in 1971.

1972 - Belt-Driven VolvoThe Volvo Group has acquired a large number of other companies throughout its history. However, this includes only one carmaker - DAF. To meet the wishes of dealers anxious to complement their ranges with a small car, Volvo agreed to acquire a 30% shareholding in the Dutch company's car operation and its plant at Born in the southern Netherlands, as of 1 January 1973. In 1975, Volvo increased its shareholding to 75% and the company was renamed Volvo Car B.V. Although not an attractive model, the Volvo Experimental Safety Car (VESC) provided a powerful answer to existing and future traffic safety problems, not only in Europe, but especially in the USA. Volvo's first environmental policy was articulated by P.G. Gyllenhammar at the UN Environmental Conference in Stockholm. A seat belt reminder was the biggest safety innovation introduced in production models. Inertia reel belts also made their appearance in the rear seats. The company's biggest investment in 1972 was the new Volvo Technical Centre (VTC), which was built to house all new car development activities.

1973 - Fantastic Test TrackThe original test track at Stora Holm had become far too small and too difficult to shield from the prying eyes and lenses of a press anxious to uncover secret projects. As a result, the company decided to build an enormous test facility at Hдllered, deep in the forest between Gцteborg and Borеs. The principal feature was the main track, a six-kilometre oval with four lanes and banked bends, which enabled a driver to drive at 200 km/h without touching the wheel. Volvo was to start car production in Chesapeake, Virginia in 1973. However, economic conditions, combined with the first oil crisis, dictated otherwise and it was decided to build buses instead. In the event, this was not a success and the plant was finally used to produce Volvo Penta engines and drives. Volvo Penta's American headquarters are still located in Chesapeake today. The USA became Volvo's biggest car market.