The History of Alaska (история Аляски)

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Municipal Educational Institution

Lyceum № 130 “RAVES”

Exam paper.

The History of Alaska.

Student: Protopopova N.S., M-111

Teacher: Shipulina O.N.

Barnaul, 2005

Contents:

Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……3

1. Origins of Alaska’s Groups……………………………………………………………………..…………4

The Eskimos

The Aathabascans

Aleuts

The Northwest Coast Indians

2. From the Russian Empire to the USA……………………………………………………………7

3. Alaska today………………………………………………………………………………………………………..8

Geography

Government

Business

Transport

4. The most important dates in the history of Alaska……………………….…………11

Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..17

The list of literature………………………………………………………………………………………….…18

Introduction.

Undoubtedly, the history is one of the most interesting and most important sciences. It incorporates experience of each person and all mankind. The history acquaints us with process of development of a mankind. Behind acts and decisions of separate people, behind actions of weights there is a bright, many-sided and unique image of the world, different continents, the countries and people. To understand history of the Native land, it is necessary to understand world history. In the exam paper I will tell about history of Alaska – history, which connects two great powers - Russia and the USA. The purpose of the given work is to study political and social life of Alaska, its daily life, material, spiritual and religious culture. I will tell about the reasons and consequences of historical events of Alaska, I will cite statistical data. To be prepared of this exam paper I used the educational and scientific literature and materials of periodic printed editions.

1. Origins of Alaska’s Native Groups.

No one knows exactly when people first found the land that would be called Alaska. Some anthropologists believe that people migrated from Asia to North America 40,000 years ago. Others argue it was as recent as 15,000 years ago. Whenever, the consensus is that they came from Asia by way of a northern land bridge that once connected Siberia and Alaska. That land bridge, now recalled as Beringia, was the first gateway to Alaska. But these first visitors were hardly tourists intent on exploring new worlds. Rather they were simply pursuing their subsistence way of life as they followed great herds of grazing mammals across the grassy tundra and gentle steppes of Beringia. Some groups settled in the Arctic. Others traversed the mountain passes to other parts of Alaska. While still others migrated through Alaska, continuing on to distant lands--perhaps as far as South America. Those who made Alaska their permanent home make up the state’s four major anthropological groups: Eskimos, Aleuts, Athabascans, and Northwest Coast Indians. While all four groups shared certain basic similarities--all hunted, fished and gathered food--they developed distinctive cultures and sets of skills.

The Eskimos:

Flexible Residents of the Arctic. The Eskimos were primarily a coastal people, setting along the shores of the Arctic and Bering seas. For millennia they lived a simple, subsistence life--much as they still do today--by harvesting the fish and mammals of the seas, the fruits and game of the land. Somehow they learned how to thrive despite the demanding conditions of the Arctic. Their sense of direction was keen, almost uncanny. Travelling in a straight line, sometimes through snowstorms and whiteouts, they found their way around the mostly featureless terrain by noting wind direction, the position of the stars, the shape and size of a snowdrift. And they were resourceful. In a land where the summer sun stays at eye-level for weeks on end, never setting below the horizon, the Eskimos fashioned the first sun-visor--which also doubled as a snow mask to protect their eyes from the wind-driven snow.